Abkhaz

This language is cloned from WALS. If you need to cite or disagree with any data on this language, you will have to do so at WALS, not here.

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Homepage:http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_abk
Natlang:yes
Permalink:/language/abkhaz/
Averageness:50/100, 66 of 130
Number of features:130
Tags:
Editable by all:no
Added by:WALS 2
Managed by:WALS 2
Added:2009-12-11 13:11
Last change:2009-12-11 13:11

Features:

Phonology

Consonant Inventories WALS Small
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Small (2-4)
Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS High
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In both plosives and fricatives
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS None missing in /p t k b d g/
Uvular Consonants WALS Uvular stops only
Glottalized Consonants WALS Ejectives only
Lateral Consonants WALS /l/, no obstruent laterals
The Velar Nasal WALS No velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS None
Syllable Structure WALS Complex
Tone WALS No tones
Fixed Stress Locations WALS No fixed stress
Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Not predictable
Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS Lexical stress
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS Pharyngeals

Morphology

Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Exclusively concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS No case
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 10-11 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Head marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Head marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Head-marking
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Equal prefixing and suffixing
Reduplication WALS Productive full and partial reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS No case marking
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS Not syncretic

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS Three
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS Sex-based
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS Semantic
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Plural suffix
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always obligatory
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person-number stem
The Associative Plural WALS Unique affixal associative plural
Definite Articles WALS Definite word distinct from demonstrative
Indefinite Articles WALS Indefinite word same as 'one'
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS No inclusive/exclusive
Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS Two-way contrast
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Identical
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS In 3rd person + 1st and/or 2nd person
Indefinite Pronouns WALS Special
Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Differentiated
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS Pronouns and nouns
Number of Cases WALS 2 cases
Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS Symmetrical
Position of Case Affixes WALS No case affixes or adpositional clitics
Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Differentiation
Ordinal Numerals WALS First/one-th, two-th, three-th
Distributive Numerals WALS Marked by mixed or other strategies
Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS Possessive prefixes

Nominal Syntax

Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent
Possessive Classification WALS No possessive classification
Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses WALS Highly differentiated
Adjectives without Nouns WALS Without marking
Action Nominal Constructions WALS Ergative-Possessive
Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' different from 'with'
Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Identity

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS Grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS Present, no remoteness distinctions
The Future Tense WALS Inflectional future exists
The Perfect WALS Other perfect
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Tense-aspect suffixes
The Morphological Imperative WALS Second singular and second plural
The Prohibitive WALS Special imperative + normal negative
Imperative-Hortative Systems WALS Neither type of system
The Optative WALS Inflectional optative present
Situational Possibility WALS Verbal constructions
Epistemic Possibility WALS Verbal constructions
Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking WALS Overlap for either possibility or necessity
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS Indirect only
Coding of Evidentiality WALS Verbal affix or clitic
Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS Tense
Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS SOV
Order of Subject and Verb WALS SV
Order of Object and Verb WALS OV
Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS XOV
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Postpositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Genitive-Noun
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Noun-Adjective
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Demonstrative-Noun
Order of Numeral and Noun WALS No dominant order
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Relative clause-Noun
Order of Degree Word and Adjective WALS Degree word-Adjective
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS No question particle
Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Not initial interrogative phrase
Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Subordinating suffix
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS OV and Postpositions
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS OV and RelN
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS OV and NAdj
Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS Type 3 / Type 4
Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to Subject, Object and Verb WALS MorphNeg

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Neutral
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Neutral
Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Ergative
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Subject affixes on verb
Verbal Person Marking WALS Both the A and P arguments
Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS No zero realization
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS P precedes A
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Indirect-object construction
Reciprocal Constructions WALS Distinct from reflexive
Passive Constructions WALS Absent
Antipassive Constructions WALS No antipassive
Applicative Constructions WALS Benefactive and other; only transitive
Periphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Purposive but no sequential
Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Morphological but no compound
Negative Morphemes WALS Negative affix
Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Both
Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS A/Cat
Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation WALS Predicate negation also present
Polar Questions WALS Interrogative verb morphology
Predicative Possession WALS 'Have'
Predicative Adjectives WALS Verbal encoding
Nominal and Locational Predication WALS Different
Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Impossible

Complex Sentences

Relativization on Subjects WALS Gap
Relativization on Obliques WALS Gap
'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Subject is expressed overtly
Purpose Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked
'When' Clauses WALS Deranked
Reason Clauses WALS Deranked
Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked

Lexicon

Hand and Arm WALS Different
Finger and Hand WALS Different
Numeral Bases WALS Hybrid vigesimal-decimal
M-T Pronouns WALS No M-T pronouns
N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns

Comments:

  1. On July 1, 2012, 3:16 p.m., k1234567890y wrote:
    there's something wrong, the consonant inventory is large, not small.