Apurina

This language is cloned from WALS. If you need to cite or disagree with any data on this language, you will have to do so at WALS, not here.

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Internal name:Apurinã
Homepage:http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_apu
Natlang:yes
Permalink:/language/apurina/
Averageness:58/100, 66 of 112
Number of features:112
Tags:
Editable by all:no
Added by:WALS 2
Managed by:WALS 2
Added:2009-12-11 13:52
Last change:2009-12-11 13:52

Features:

Phonology

Consonant Inventories WALS Small
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Average (5-6)
Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Average
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS No voicing constrast
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS Other
Uvular Consonants WALS None
Glottalized Consonants WALS No glottalized consonants
Lateral Consonants WALS No laterals
The Velar Nasal WALS No velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast present
Front Rounded Vowels WALS None
Syllable Structure WALS Simple
Tone WALS No tones
Fixed Stress Locations WALS No fixed stress
Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Right-edge: Ultimate or penultimate
Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS Long vowel
Rhythm Types WALS Trochaic
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS None

Morphology

Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Exclusively concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS No case
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 6-7 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Head marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Head marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Head-marking
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Equal prefixing and suffixing
Reduplication WALS No productive reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS No case marking
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS Not syncretic

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS Two
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS Sex-based
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS Semantic and formal
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Plural suffix
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always obligatory
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person-number affixes
The Associative Plural WALS No associative plural
Definite Articles WALS No definite or indefinite article
Indefinite Articles WALS No definite or indefinite article
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS No inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS No inclusive/exclusive
Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS Two-way contrast
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Identical
Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives WALS Related by gender markers
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS 3rd person singular only
Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS No politeness distinction
Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Differentiated
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No adpositions
Number of Cases WALS Exclusively borderline case-marking
Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS Symmetrical
Position of Case Affixes WALS Postpositional clitics
Ordinal Numerals WALS None
Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS Possessive prefixes

Nominal Syntax

Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent
Possessive Classification WALS No possessive classification
Action Nominal Constructions WALS Sentential
Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Both expressed by juxtaposition

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS No grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS No past tense
The Future Tense WALS Inflectional future exists
The Perfect WALS No perfect
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Tense-aspect suffixes
The Morphological Imperative WALS Second plural
Imperative-Hortative Systems WALS Neither type of system
The Optative WALS Inflectional optative absent
Situational Possibility WALS Verbal constructions
Epistemic Possibility WALS Affixes on verbs
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS Indirect only
Coding of Evidentiality WALS Verbal affix or clitic
Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS None
Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS SVO
Order of Subject and Verb WALS SV
Order of Object and Verb WALS No dominant order
Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS No dominant order
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Postpositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Genitive-Noun
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Noun-Adjective
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Demonstrative-Noun
Order of Numeral and Noun WALS Numeral-Noun
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS No question particle
Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Initial interrogative phrase
Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Initial subordinator word
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Other
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Other
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Other
Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS NegV
Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to Subject, Object and Verb WALS More than one position

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Neutral
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Neutral
Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Active
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Subject affixes on verb
Verbal Person Marking WALS Both the A and P arguments
Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS No zero realization
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A precedes P
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Mixed
Reciprocal Constructions WALS Distinct from reflexive
Passive Constructions WALS Present
Antipassive Constructions WALS No antipassive
Applicative Constructions WALS No applicative construction
Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Morphological but no compound
Negative Morphemes WALS Negative particle
Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Symmetric
Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Non-assignable
Polar Questions WALS Interrogative intonation only

Complex Sentences

'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Desiderative verbal affix
'When' Clauses WALS Balanced
Reason Clauses WALS Balanced
Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced

Lexicon

M-T Pronouns WALS No M-T pronouns
N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns

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