Features for Austrian

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Consonant Inventories WALS Average
/p v f m t d s z ʃ ʒ n r l j k ɣ ŋ h/
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Large (7-14)
/a aː e eː i iː o oː u uː y yː ei ou/
[a ɔː ɛ ɨː ɨ iː ɔ oː ʉ uː ʏ yː æɪ̆ əʏ̆]
Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Low
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In fricatives alone
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS Missing /g/
Uvular Consonants WALS Uvular continuants only
Glottalized Consonants WALS No glottalized consonants
Lateral Consonants WALS /l/, no obstruent laterals
The Velar Nasal WALS No initial velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS High and mid
Syllable Structure WALS Complex
Tone WALS No tones
Fixed Stress Locations WALS No fixed stress
Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Not predictable
Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS Lexical stress
Rhythm Types WALS Trochaic
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS None


Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Exclusively concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Case + number
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 2-3 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Dependent-marking
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Strongly suffixing
Reduplication WALS No productive reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS Core and non-core
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS Syncretic

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS Two
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS Sex-based
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS Semantic and formal
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Plural suffix
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always obligatory
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person-number stem
The Associative Plural WALS No associative plural
Definite Articles WALS Definite word distinct from demonstrative
Indefinite Articles WALS Indefinite word same as 'one'
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS No inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS No inclusive/exclusive
Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS Three-way contrast
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Different inflection
Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives WALS Unrelated
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS 3rd person singular only
Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS Binary politeness distinction
Indefinite Pronouns WALS Mixed
Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Differentiated
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No person marking
Number of Cases WALS 4 cases
Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS Syncretism in relevant NP-types
Position of Case Affixes WALS Case suffixes
Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Mixed
Ordinal Numerals WALS First, second, three-th
Distributive Numerals WALS No distributive numerals
Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent
Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers WALS Formally different
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS No possessive affixes

Nominal Syntax

Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent
Possessive Classification WALS No possessive classification
Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses WALS Highly differentiated
Adjectives without Nouns WALS Without marking
Action Nominal Constructions WALS Ergative-Possessive
Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' different from 'with'
Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Identity

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS No grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS Present, no remoteness distinctions
The Future Tense WALS No inflectional future
The Perfect WALS Other perfect
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Tense-aspect suffixes
The Morphological Imperative WALS Second singular and second plural
The Prohibitive WALS Normal imperative + normal negative
Imperative-Hortative Systems WALS Neither type of system
The Optative WALS Inflectional optative absent
Situational Possibility WALS Verbal constructions
Epistemic Possibility WALS Verbal constructions
Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking WALS Overlap for either possibility or necessity
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Coding of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS Tense
Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS SVO
Order of Subject and Verb WALS SV
Order of Object and Verb WALS No dominant order
Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS VOX
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Prepositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Genitive-Noun
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Adjective-Noun
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Demonstrative-Noun
Order of Numeral and Noun WALS Numeral-Noun
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause
Order of Degree Word and Adjective WALS Degree word-Adjective
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS Final
Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Initial interrogative phrase
Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Initial subordinator word
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS VO and Prepositions
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS VO and NRel
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS VO and AdjN
Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS VNeg
Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to Subject, Object and Verb WALS SVNegO

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Nominative - accusative (standard)
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Nominative - accusative (standard)
Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Accusative
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Obligatory pronouns in subject position
Verbal Person Marking WALS Only the A argument
Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS No zero realization
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Indirect-object construction
Reciprocal Constructions WALS Mixed
Passive Constructions WALS Present
Antipassive Constructions WALS No antipassive
Applicative Constructions WALS Benefactive and other; both bases
Periphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Sequential but no purposive
Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Neither
Negative Morphemes WALS Negative particle
Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Symmetric
Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Non-assignable
Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation WALS No predicate negation
Polar Questions WALS Interrogative word order
Predicative Possession WALS 'Have'
Predicative Adjectives WALS Nonverbal encoding
Nominal and Locational Predication WALS Identical
Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Possible
Comparative Constructions WALS Particle

Complex Sentences

Relativization on Subjects WALS Relative pronoun
Relativization on Obliques WALS Relative pronoun
'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Subject is left implicit
Purpose Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked
'When' Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked
Reason Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked
Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked


Hand and Arm WALS Different
Finger and Hand WALS Different
Numeral Bases WALS Decimal
Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories WALS 6
Number of Basic Colour Categories WALS 11
Green and Blue WALS Green vs. blue
Red and Yellow WALS Red vs. yellow
M-T Pronouns WALS M-T pronouns, paradigmatic
N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns
Tea WALS Words derived from Min Nan Chinese te


Writing Systems WALS Alphabetic


Conlang type Artlang


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