Features for Istokahi

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Consonant Inventories WALS Large
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Average (5-6)
Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS High
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In both plosives and fricatives
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS None missing in /p t k b d g/
Uvular Consonants WALS Uvular stops only
Glottalized Consonants WALS Ejectives only
Lateral Consonants WALS No laterals
The Velar Nasal WALS Initial velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS None
Syllable Structure WALS Complex
Tone WALS No tones
Fixed Stress Locations WALS No fixed stress
Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Not predictable
Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS No weight
Rhythm Types WALS No rhythmic stress
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS Pharyngeals


Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Ablaut/concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Monoexponential case
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 6-7 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Double marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Inconsistent or other
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Weakly suffixing
Reduplication WALS Productive full and partial reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS No syncretism
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS Not syncretic

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS Four
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS Sex-based
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS Semantic and formal
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Plural suffix
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always optional
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person stem + pronominal plural affix
The Associative Plural WALS Associative same as additive plural
Definite Articles WALS Definite word distinct from demonstrative
Indefinite Articles WALS No indefinite, but definite article
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS Two-way contrast
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Different inflection
Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives WALS Related to remote demonstratives
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS 3rd person only, but also non-singular
Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS No politeness distinction
Indefinite Pronouns WALS Generic-noun-based
Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Identical
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No person marking
Number of Cases WALS 4 cases
Position of Case Affixes WALS Mixed morphological case
Ordinal Numerals WALS First, two-th, three-th
Distributive Numerals WALS No distributive numerals
Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent
Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers WALS Formally different
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS Possessive suffixes

Nominal Syntax

Possessive Classification WALS No possessive classification
Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses WALS Genitives and relative clauses collapsed
Adjectives without Nouns WALS Marked by preceding word
Action Nominal Constructions WALS Double-Possessive
Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' different from 'with'
Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Differentiation

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS No grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS No past tense
The Future Tense WALS No inflectional future
The Perfect WALS From 'finish', 'already'
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Tense-aspect prefixes
The Morphological Imperative WALS Second singular and second plural
The Prohibitive WALS Normal imperative + special negative
The Optative WALS Inflectional optative absent
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Coding of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS SOV
Order of Subject and Verb WALS SV
Order of Object and Verb WALS OV
Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS XOV
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Postpositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Genitive-Noun
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS No dominant order
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Noun-Demonstrative
Order of Numeral and Noun WALS Numeral-Noun
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause
Order of Degree Word and Adjective WALS No dominant order
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS In either of two positions
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS OV and Postpositions
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS OV and NRel
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Other
Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS VNeg
Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to Subject, Object and Verb WALS SOVNeg

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Active-inactive
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Active - inactive
Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Accusative
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Subject affixes on verb
Verbal Person Marking WALS Only the A argument
Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS No zero realization
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Indirect-object construction
Reciprocal Constructions WALS Distinct from reflexive
Passive Constructions WALS Absent
Antipassive Constructions WALS No antipassive
Negative Morphemes WALS Negative auxiliary verb
Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Symmetric
Polar Questions WALS Interrogative intonation only
Predicative Possession WALS 'Have'
Nominal and Locational Predication WALS Different
Comparative Constructions WALS Exceed

Complex Sentences

Relativization on Subjects WALS Gap
Relativization on Obliques WALS Gap
'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Both construction types exist


Hand and Arm WALS Different
Finger and Hand WALS Different
Numeral Bases WALS Hybrid vigesimal-decimal
Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories WALS 5
Green and Blue WALS Green vs. blue
Red and Yellow WALS Red vs. yellow
M-T Pronouns WALS No M-T pronouns
N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns
Tea WALS Others


Conlang type Artlang


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