Features for Kachan

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Consonant Inventories WALS Moderately large
Akachenti has 26 consonants, including 8 clicks contrasting nasal, tenuis, voiced, and murmured in lateral and alveolar.

It has five points of articulation with a voicing contrast in nonlabial obstruents and voicing only in the labiodental fricative. Other fricatives are generally unvoiced.

The glottal fricative is a true fricative with palatal fricative allophones and is audible in all positions.

Consonants in the phonemic inventory are m, n, ŋ, b, t, d, k, g, ʔ, tʃ, dʒ, f/v, s, ʃ, x, ɦ, l, r, ᵑǃ, ᶢǃ, ǃ, sǃʱˡ, ᵑǁ, ᶢǁ, ǁ, sǁʱ.
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Large (7-14)
Akachenti has a five-vowel system with contrasting length: a, e, o, u, i, a:, e:, o:, u:, i:, and seven dipthongs: aɛ - aɪ, iɪ - jɪ, ie, ia, ue, ua, ui.

Orthographically, it has six short vowels and five long, as ae is considered a pure vowel by speakers.
Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Moderately low
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In plosives alone
While the labiodental fricative may be fully voiced in unstressed medial environments and the glottal fricative is regularly breathy-voiced, there is no phonemic contrast and allophones are all voiceless. The non-peripheral fricatives are pronounced voiceless.
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS Missing /p/
Glottalized Consonants WALS Ejectives and implosives
Lateral Consonants WALS /l/ and lateral obstruent
The Velar Nasal WALS Initial velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS None
Tone WALS Simple tone system
Fixed Stress Locations WALS No fixed stress
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS Clicks


Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Ablaut/concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Case + referentiality
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 10-11 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Head marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Head marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Head-marking
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Equal prefixing and suffixing
Reduplication WALS Full reduplication only
Case Syncretism WALS Core cases only
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS No subject person/number marking

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS None
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS No gender
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS No gender
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS No plural
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS No nominal plural
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Number-indifferent pronouns
The Associative Plural WALS Unique periphrastic associative plural
Definite Articles WALS No definite or indefinite article
Indefinite Articles WALS No definite or indefinite article
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS 'We' the same as 'I'
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Different stem
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS No gender distinctions
Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS No politeness distinction
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No adpositions
Position of Case Affixes WALS Mixed morphological case
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS Possessive suffixes

Nominal Syntax

Adjectives without Nouns WALS Marked by mixed or other strategies

Verbal Categories

Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Mixed type
The Morphological Imperative WALS Second person number-neutral

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS OVS
Akachenti has relatively free word order but default OVS. In single-word sentences, the unmarked order is PVA or VS.
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Noun-Adjective
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS Initial

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Active
Akachenti has fluid-S active morphosyntactic alignment for most (if not all) intransitive verbs. Verbs which cannot take a noun object but only a verbal complement also generally mark their subjects identically to the object of a transitive verb.
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Subject affixes on verb
Verbal Person Marking WALS Both the A and P arguments
Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS No zero realization
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS Both orders of A and P occur
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Mixed
Reciprocal Constructions WALS Identical to reflexive
Passive Constructions WALS Present
Negative Morphemes WALS Variation between negative word and affix
Polar Questions WALS Question particle


Hand and Arm WALS Different
Finger and Hand WALS Different
Numeral Bases WALS Decimal
Green and Blue WALS Green vs. blue
Red and Yellow WALS Red vs. yellow


Conlang type Artlang


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