Features for Kagian

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Phonology

Consonant Inventories WALS Average
27 consonants:

/m n ɲ p b t tˤ d dˤ c ɟ s sˤ z zˤ k g f v s sˤ z zˤ t͡s d͡z j w ʕ̞ l ɾ r/
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Large (7-14)
7 vowels:

/i̘ ɪ e̘ ɛ o̘~u̘ ɔ~ʊ ä/
Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Average
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In both plosives and fricatives
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS None missing in /p t k b d g/
Uvular Consonants WALS None
Glottalized Consonants WALS No glottalized consonants
Lateral Consonants WALS /l/, no obstruent laterals
The Velar Nasal WALS No velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS None
Syllable Structure WALS Complex
Tone WALS No tones
Fixed Stress Locations WALS Penultimate
Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Right-edge: Ultimate or penultimate
Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS Long vowel or coda consonant
Rhythm Types WALS Iambic
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS Pharyngeals

Morphology

Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Exclusively concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS No case
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 8-9 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Head marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Head marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Head-marking
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Weakly suffixing
Reduplication WALS Productive full and partial reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS No case marking
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS Not syncretic

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS Three
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS Sex-based
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS Semantic and formal
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Plural prefix
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always obligatory
Definite Articles WALS Definite affix
Indefinite Articles WALS Indefinite affix
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS 'We' the same as 'I'
Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS Three-way contrast
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Different stem
Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS Binary politeness distinction
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No adpositions
Number of Cases WALS No morphological case-marking
Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Differentiation
Numeral Classifiers WALS Obligatory

Nominal Syntax

Possessive Classification WALS Two classes
Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses WALS Genitives and relative clauses collapsed
Adjectives without Nouns WALS Without marking
Action Nominal Constructions WALS No action nominals
Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' different from 'with'

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS Grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS No past tense
The Future Tense WALS No inflectional future
The Perfect WALS No perfect
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Tense-aspect suffixes
Situational Possibility WALS Affixes on verbs
Epistemic Possibility WALS Affixes on verbs
Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking WALS No overlap
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS Direct and indirect
Coding of Evidentiality WALS Verbal affix or clitic

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS VSO
Order of Subject and Verb WALS VS
Order of Object and Verb WALS VO
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Prepositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Noun-Genitive
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Adjective-Noun
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Noun-Demonstrative
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS VO and Prepositions
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS VO and NRel
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS VO and AdjN
Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS NegV

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Neutral
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Neutral
Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Active
Verbal Person Marking WALS Both the A and P arguments
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS P precedes A
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Indirect-object construction
Predicative Possession WALS 'Have'
Predicative Adjectives WALS Verbal encoding
Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Possible

Complex Sentences

Relativization on Subjects WALS Gap
Relativization on Obliques WALS Gap

Conlang-specific

Conlang type Artlang

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