External name:KiitraKlingonDothraki
Internal name:hirajna KiitratlhIngan HolLekh Dothraki
Author(s):D. R. MerrillMarc OkrandDavid J. Peterson
Homepage:yesyesyes
Greeting:riikhaanuqneHAthchomar chomakaan, zhey $!
Vocabulary size:424630003600
From earth:nonono
Averageness of features:63/100, 92 of 14551/100, 74 of 14359/100, 61 of 103
Number of features:145143103
Tags:Kiitra, Alplaa, artlang, Lamikorda, exolang, alien, fictional, Alplai, science fiction, conworld, agglutinatingfictional, science fiction, alien, star treknaturalistic, artlang, a priori
Editable by all:noyesno
Editors:
    Added:2014-03-20 01:092008-05-19 21:052010-04-15 08:32
    Last change:2017-08-25 02:142015-01-07 01:202018-08-27 22:18

    Comparing 145 features:

    KiitraKlingonDothraki
    Consonant Inventories WALS Average Average Average
    Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Large (7-14) Average (5-6) Small (2-4)
    Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Moderately low Average Moderately high
    Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In both plosives and fricatives In plosives alone In both plosives and fricatives
    Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS None missing in /p t k b d g/ Other Missing /p/
    Uvular Consonants WALS None Uvular stops and continuants Uvular stops only
    Glottalized Consonants WALS No glottalized consonants No glottalized consonants No glottalized consonants
    Lateral Consonants WALS /l/, no obstruent laterals /l/ and lateral obstruent /l/, no obstruent laterals
    The Velar Nasal WALS No velar nasal Initial velar nasal No initial velar nasal
    Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent Contrast absent Contrast absent
    Front Rounded Vowels WALS None None None
    Syllable Structure WALS Complex Moderately complex Moderately complex
    Tone WALS No tones No tones No tones
    Fixed Stress Locations WALS No fixed stress No fixed stress No fixed stress
    Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Not predictable Unbounded: Stress can be anywhere Combined: Right-edge and unbounded
    Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS No weight No weight Coda consonant
    Rhythm Types WALS Undetermined No rhythmic stress Trochaic
    Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present All present All present
    Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS None None 'Th' sounds
    Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Ablaut/concatenative Exclusively concatenative Exclusively concatenative
    Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS No case Monoexponential case Case + number
    Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 2-3 categories per word 8-9 categories per word 2-3 categories per word
    Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Dependent marking Head marking Dependent marking
    Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Dependent marking No marking Dependent marking
    Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Head-marking Inconsistent or other Dependent-marking
    Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Equal prefixing and suffixing Weakly suffixing Equal prefixing and suffixing
    Reduplication WALS Productive full and partial reduplication No productive reduplication No productive reduplication
    Case Syncretism WALS No case marking No syncretism Core and non-core
    Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS No subject person/number marking Syncretic Syncretic
    Number of Genders WALS Four None Two
    Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS Sex-based No gender Non-sex-based
    Systems of Gender Assignment WALS No gender No gender Semantic and formal
    Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Mixed morphological plural Plural suffix Mixed morphological plural
    Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always optional All nouns, always optional All nouns, optional in inanimates
    Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person-number stem Person-number stem
    The Associative Plural WALS No associative plural No associative plural
    Definite Articles WALS Demonstrative word used as definite article No definite or indefinite article No definite or indefinite article
    Indefinite Articles WALS No definite or indefinite article No definite or indefinite article No definite or indefinite article
    Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS No inclusive/exclusive No inclusive/exclusive No inclusive/exclusive
    Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS No inclusive/exclusive No inclusive/exclusive No inclusive/exclusive
    Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS No distance contrast Two-way contrast
    Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Identical Different stem
    Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives WALS Related for all demonstratives Unrelated Unrelated
    Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS 3rd person singular only 3rd person only, but also non-singular
    Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS No politeness distinction No politeness distinction Binary politeness distinction
    Indefinite Pronouns WALS Generic-noun-based Special
    Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Differentiated Differentiated
    Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No person marking No person marking
    Number of Cases WALS No morphological case-marking 4 cases 5 cases
    Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS No case-marking Symmetrical
    Position of Case Affixes WALS No case affixes or adpositional clitics Case suffixes Case suffixes
    Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Identity Differentiation Identity
    Ordinal Numerals WALS One-th, two-th, three-th One-th, two-th, three-th
    Distributive Numerals WALS No distributive numerals No distributive numerals
    Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent Absent
    Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers WALS Formally different Formally different
    Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS Possessive suffixes Possessive suffixes No possessive affixes
    Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent Absent Absent
    Possessive Classification WALS No possessive classification Two classes Two classes
    Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses WALS Highly differentiated Highly differentiated Highly differentiated
    Adjectives without Nouns WALS Marked by mixed or other strategies Marked by suffix Not without noun
    Action Nominal Constructions WALS Possessive-Accusative Other
    Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' different from 'with' 'And' different from 'with' 'And' identical to 'with'
    Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Identity Differentiation
    Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS No grammatical marking Grammatical marking No grammatical marking
    The Past Tense WALS Present, no remoteness distinctions No past tense Present, no remoteness distinctions
    The Future Tense WALS Inflectional future exists No inflectional future Inflectional future exists
    The Perfect WALS No perfect No perfect From 'finish', 'already'
    Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Tense-aspect suffixes Tense-aspect suffixes Mixed type
    The Morphological Imperative WALS No second-person imperatives Second singular and second plural Second person number-neutral
    The Prohibitive WALS Normal imperative + normal negative Normal imperative + special negative Normal imperative + normal negative
    Imperative-Hortative Systems WALS Neither type of system Neither type of system
    The Optative WALS Inflectional optative absent Inflectional optative present
    Situational Possibility WALS Verbal constructions Affixes on verbs
    Epistemic Possibility WALS Other Affixes on verbs
    Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking WALS No overlap No overlap
    Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials No grammatical evidentials
    Coding of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials No grammatical evidentials No grammatical evidentials
    Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS None None
    Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None Singular-plural pairs, no suppletion
    Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS SVO OVS SVO
    Order of Subject and Verb WALS SV VS SV
    Order of Object and Verb WALS VO OV VO
    Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS VOX XOV VOX
    Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Prepositions Postpositions Prepositions
    Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Noun-Genitive Genitive-Noun Noun-Genitive
    Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Adjective-Noun Noun-Adjective Noun-Adjective
    Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Demonstrative prefix Demonstrative suffix Demonstrative-Noun
    Order of Numeral and Noun WALS No dominant order Numeral-Noun Numeral-Noun
    Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause Mixed Noun-Relative clause
    Order of Degree Word and Adjective WALS Degree word-Adjective No dominant order
    Position of Polar Question Particles WALS Initial Other position Initial
    Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Initial interrogative phrase Not initial interrogative phrase Mixed
    Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Initial subordinator word Subordinating suffix
    Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS VO and Postpositions OV and Postpositions VO and Prepositions
    Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS VO and NRel Other VO and NRel
    Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS VO and AdjN OV and NAdj VO and NAdj
    Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Neutral Neutral Nominative - accusative (standard)
    Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS None Neutral Nominative - accusative (standard)
    Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Neutral Split Accusative
    Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Obligatory pronouns in subject position Subject affixes on verb Obligatory pronouns in subject position
    Verbal Person Marking WALS No person marking Both the A and P arguments Only the A argument
    Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS No person marking Zero in some 3sg forms No zero realization
    Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb A and P are fused A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb
    Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Mixed Mixed Indirect-object construction
    Reciprocal Constructions WALS Distinct from reflexive Distinct from reflexive
    Passive Constructions WALS Absent Present Present
    Antipassive Constructions WALS No antipassive No antipassive No antipassive
    Applicative Constructions WALS No applicative construction No applicative construction No applicative construction
    Periphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Sequential but no purposive Sequential but no purposive
    Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Compound but no morphological Both Morphological but no compound
    Negative Morphemes WALS Negative affix Negative affix Variation between negative word and affix
    Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Symmetric Symmetric
    Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Non-assignable Non-assignable
    Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation WALS No predicate negation No predicate negation
    Polar Questions WALS Question particle Interrogative verb morphology Question particle
    Predicative Possession WALS 'Have' 'Have'
    Predicative Adjectives WALS Verbal encoding Verbal encoding Verbal encoding
    Nominal and Locational Predication WALS Identical Identical
    Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Impossible Impossible Possible
    Comparative Constructions WALS Particle Conjoined
    Relativization on Subjects WALS Relative pronoun Gap Relative pronoun
    Relativization on Obliques WALS Pronoun-retention Not possible Relative pronoun
    'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Both construction types exist Subject is expressed overtly Both construction types exist
    Purpose Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked Balanced Balanced/deranked
    'When' Clauses WALS Balanced Balanced
    Reason Clauses WALS Balanced Balanced
    Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced Balanced
    Hand and Arm WALS Different Different Identical
    Finger and Hand WALS Different Different Different
    Numeral Bases WALS Decimal Decimal Decimal
    Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories WALS 6 4 6
    Number of Basic Colour Categories WALS 11 3-4 9-10
    Green and Blue WALS Green vs. blue Yellow/green/blue Green vs. blue
    Red and Yellow WALS Red vs. yellow Yellow/green/blue vs. red Red vs. yellow
    M-T Pronouns WALS M-T pronouns, paradigmatic No M-T pronouns No M-T pronouns
    N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns No N-M pronouns No N-M pronouns
    Tea WALS Others Others Others
    Irregular Negatives in Sign Languages WALS None
    Question Particles in Sign Languages WALS One
    Writing Systems WALS Alphabetic Alphabetic
    Para-Linguistic Usages of Clicks WALS Other or none Other or none
    Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS NegV [V-Neg]
    Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to Subject, Object and Verb WALS More than one position OVNegS
    Conlang type Artlang Artlang Artlang