Features for Nayraki

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Consonant Inventories WALS Small

Prestige dialect (Auraki): /m n p t k ⱱ ɾ s h l/ <m n p t k v r s h l>

Standard dialect (nayraki): /m n p t k s h ʋ ɹ l/ <m n p t k s h v r l>

As with all points described here, regional dialects can show considerably more variation.

Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Large (7-14)

<i y e æ ɑ o u> /i y e a ah o u/

Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Low
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS No voicing constrast
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS Other
Uvular Consonants WALS None
Glottalized Consonants WALS No glottalized consonants
Lateral Consonants WALS /l/, no obstruent laterals
The Velar Nasal WALS No velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS High only
Syllable Structure WALS Moderately complex

Maximally (C)(V)V(C) although most syllables are CV or V.

Only /n/ and /t/ may appear as a coda. /n/ may only be followed by a plosive or by /s/; /t/ may only be followed by a nasal or by /s/. The complete list of consonant clusters is therefore /np nt nk ns tm tn ts/. An epenthetic /y/ is inserted between any other pairs.

/h/ only appears word-initially.

Tone WALS Simple tone system
Fixed Stress Locations WALS No fixed stress
Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Unbounded: Stress can be anywhere
Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS Coda consonant
Rhythm Types WALS Trochaic
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS None


Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Exclusively concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Monoexponential case
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 4-5 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Dependent-marking
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Strongly suffixing
Reduplication WALS Productive full and partial reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS No syncretism
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS Not syncretic

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS Three
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS Non-sex-based


Systems of Gender Assignment WALS Semantic
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS No plural
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS No nominal plural
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person-number stem
The Associative Plural WALS Unique affixal associative plural
Definite Articles WALS Demonstrative word used as definite article
Indefinite Articles WALS Indefinite word same as 'one'
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS No person marking
Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS Three-way contrast
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Identical
Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives WALS Unrelated
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS In 3rd person + 1st and/or 2nd person
Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS Pronouns avoided for politeness
Indefinite Pronouns WALS Generic-noun-based
Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Differentiated
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No adpositions
Number of Cases WALS 6-7 cases
Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS Symmetrical
Position of Case Affixes WALS Case suffixes
Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Differentiation
Ordinal Numerals WALS One-th, two-th, three-th
Distributive Numerals WALS Marked by reduplication
Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent
Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers WALS Formally different
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS Possessive suffixes

Nominal Syntax

Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent
Possessive Classification WALS Two classes
Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses WALS Weakly differentiated
Adjectives without Nouns WALS Without marking
Action Nominal Constructions WALS Double-Possessive
Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' different from 'with'
Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Differentiation

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS Grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS Present, 2-3 remoteness distinctions
The Future Tense WALS Inflectional future exists
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS No tense-aspect inflection
The Morphological Imperative WALS No second-person imperatives
The Prohibitive WALS Normal imperative + normal negative
Imperative-Hortative Systems WALS Maximal system
The Optative WALS Inflectional optative present
Situational Possibility WALS Affixes on verbs
Epistemic Possibility WALS Affixes on verbs
Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking WALS Overlap for both possibility and necessity
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS Indirect only
Coding of Evidentiality WALS Separate particle
Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS None
Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS VSO
Order of Subject and Verb WALS VS
Order of Object and Verb WALS VO
Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS VOX
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS No adpositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Noun-Genitive
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Noun-Adjective
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Noun-Demonstrative
Order of Numeral and Noun WALS Numeral-Noun
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause
Order of Degree Word and Adjective WALS Adjective-Degree word
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS Initial
Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Initial interrogative phrase
Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Final subordinator word
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Other
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS VO and NRel
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS VO and NAdj
Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS [V-Neg]
Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to Subject, Object and Verb WALS MorphNeg

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Neutral
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Neutral
Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Neutral
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Optional pronouns in subject position
Verbal Person Marking WALS No person marking
Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS No person marking
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Secondary-object construction
Negative Morphemes WALS Negative affix
Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Symmetric
Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Non-assignable
Polar Questions WALS Question particle
Nominal and Locational Predication WALS Different
Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Possible

Complex Sentences

Relativization on Subjects WALS Relative pronoun
Relativization on Obliques WALS Relative pronoun
'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Desiderative verbal affix
Purpose Clauses WALS Balanced
'When' Clauses WALS Balanced
Reason Clauses WALS Balanced
Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced


Hand and Arm WALS Different
Finger and Hand WALS Different
Numeral Bases WALS Other base

Quinary (base 5).

Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories WALS 6
Number of Basic Colour Categories WALS 9-10
Green and Blue WALS Green vs. blue
Red and Yellow WALS Red vs. yellow
M-T Pronouns WALS No M-T pronouns
N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns
Tea WALS Others


Writing Systems WALS Alphasyllabic
Para-Linguistic Usages of Clicks WALS Other or none


Conlang type Artlang


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