Features for Shalolese

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Consonant Inventories WALS Large
p, b, t, d, c, ɟ, k, g, q, ɢ
(p, b, t, d, c, cj, k, g, q, qg)

ɸ, s, ʂ, ʃ, x, xʷ, h
(f, s, z, sh, x, xw, h)

p', t', ʈ', c', k', q'
(p', t', tz', c', k', q')

m, ᵐb, n, ⁿd, ŋ, ᵑg
(m, mb, n, nd, ng, ngg)

r, l, l̥, j, dʒ, w
(r, l, hl, y, j, w)
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Average (5-6)
a, e, i, o, u, ə
(a, e, i, o, u, v)
Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS High
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In plosives alone
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS None missing in /p t k b d g/
Uvular Consonants WALS Uvular stops only
Glottalized Consonants WALS Ejectives only
Lateral Consonants WALS /l/, no obstruent laterals
The Velar Nasal WALS Initial velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS None
Syllable Structure WALS Complex
Tone WALS No tones
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS None


Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Exclusively concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Case + number
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 4-5 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Double marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Head marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Inconsistent or other
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Weakly suffixing
Reduplication WALS No productive reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS No syncretism
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS Not syncretic

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS Three
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS Sex-based
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS Semantic
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Plural suffix
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always obligatory
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person-number stem
Definite Articles WALS No definite or indefinite article
Indefinite Articles WALS No definite or indefinite article
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives WALS Unrelated
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS 3rd person only, but also non-singular
Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS No politeness distinction
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS Pronouns and nouns
Number of Cases WALS 10 or more cases
Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS Symmetrical
Position of Case Affixes WALS Case suffixes
Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Differentiation
Ordinal Numerals WALS First, two-th, three-th
Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS Possessive suffixes

Nominal Syntax

Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent
Possessive Classification WALS Two classes

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS Grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS No past tense
The Future Tense WALS Inflectional future exists
The Perfect WALS No perfect
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Tense-aspect suffixes
The Morphological Imperative WALS No second-person imperatives
The Prohibitive WALS Normal imperative + normal negative
The Optative WALS Inflectional optative present
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS Direct and indirect
Coding of Evidentiality WALS Verbal affix or clitic
Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS Tense and aspect
Tense and aspect are fused as one morpheme.

Irregular verbs so far:
zol "to be" (i need to find the forms for this)
toh "to hear" -> to- with affixes starting with z-; tohl- with perfectives 
hes "to think" + heqg (imperfect irrealis) = heqg
xohl "to strike or hit" -> xol- with affixes starting with z-; + heqg = xoleqg
shet "to give" -> shek- with affixes starting with z-

Not counting verbs where the sh-z harmony rule applies.
(All instances of the phonemes /ʂ/ and /ʃ/ in a word assimilate into whichever of the two is the first to appear.
	/xʷa.səŋ.ʂeŋ.ʂab/ instead of /xʷa.səŋ.ʂeŋ.ʃab/)
Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS VSO
Order of Subject and Verb WALS VS
Order of Object and Verb WALS VO
Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS VOX
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Prepositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Noun-Genitive
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Noun-Adjective
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Demonstrative-Noun
Order of Numeral and Noun WALS Noun-Numeral
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause
Order of Degree Word and Adjective WALS Adjective-Degree word
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS No question particle
There is no specific *polar* question particle, but the interrogative in general is shown through a question particle.
Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Not initial interrogative phrase
Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Initial subordinator word
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS VO and Prepositions
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS VO and NRel
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS VO and NAdj
Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS NegV
Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to Subject, Object and Verb WALS NegVSO

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Ergative - absolutive
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Ergative - absolutive
Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Ergative
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Subject affixes on verb
Verbal Person Marking WALS Both the A and P arguments
An instance of split ergativity here. The verb has a 'subject slot' and an 'object slot'. The subject slot can have both absolutive or ergative person agreement depending on the transitivity, but the object slot can only house the absolutive (in purely active situations). The subject slot is a prefix, while the object slot is a suffix.
Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS No zero realization
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A precedes P
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Indirect-object construction
Negative Morphemes WALS Negative particle
Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Both
Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS A/Fin
Imperfect and/or durative verbs receive the verb zol between the negative particle and the verb, inflected only for tense; the same tense as the main verb. I suppose this counts as affecting the finiteness of the verb; there is no real non-finite form of verbs. Negated imperfect/durative verbs still show the same information as they would in an affirmative situation.

Ta zol bashyawkvj.
/ta ʂol ba.ʃjaw.kədʒ/
ɴᴇɢ ᴄᴏᴘ 1.ᴘʟ.ᴇxᴄ.ᴀʙs-blood-drink
“We don’t drink blood.”
Polar Questions WALS Interrogative word order
Predicative Adjectives WALS Nonverbal encoding
Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Impossible

Complex Sentences

Relativization on Subjects WALS Gap
Relativization on Obliques WALS Gap
'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Desiderative verbal affix
Purpose Clauses WALS Balanced
'When' Clauses WALS Balanced
Reason Clauses WALS Balanced
Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced


Hand and Arm WALS Different
Finger and Hand WALS Identical
This identity did not happen through semantic shift but rather through phonological change. 
finger *pɛ -> ɸe
hand *ɸe: -> ɸe
Numeral Bases WALS Decimal
M-T Pronouns WALS No M-T pronouns
N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns


Writing Systems WALS Alphasyllabic


Conlang type Artlang


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