Features for Shokitin

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Phonology

Consonant Inventories WALS Average
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Average (5-6)

Shokitin's vowels, while average in number, as unusual in their qualities: both close vowels are unrounded, while both mid vowels are rounded.

Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Moderately high
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In both plosives and fricatives
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS None missing in /p t k b d g/
Uvular Consonants WALS None
Glottalized Consonants WALS No glottalized consonants
Lateral Consonants WALS /l/ and lateral obstruent
The Velar Nasal WALS No velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS None
Syllable Structure WALS Moderately complex
Tone WALS Simple tone system
Fixed Stress Locations WALS Antepenultimate
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS None

Morphology

Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Isolating/concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS No case
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 4-5 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS No marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Inconsistent or other
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Strongly suffixing
Reduplication WALS No productive reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS No case marking
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS Syncretic

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS None
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS No gender
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS No gender
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Plural suffix
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always obligatory
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person-number stem

There is not uniformity in the derivation of personal pronouns. Plurality in the first person is indicated by stem change; the first person has exclusive and inclusive forms, neither of which are derived from the singular. The second person pronoun has a person stem from which a plural is derived using the nominal suffix. Atypically, the same is true for the third person pronouns as for the second person pronouns.

The Associative Plural WALS Unique affixal associative plural
Definite Articles WALS Definite word distinct from demonstrative
Indefinite Articles WALS No indefinite, but definite article
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS No inclusive/exclusive
Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS No distance contrast
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Identical
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS In 3rd person + 1st and/or 2nd person

The second and third person pronouns can take suffixes that can specify for semantic gender (-ge for male and -li for female), which can be generally applied to all common nouns, and in the context of the personal pronouns also takes on honorific connotations (among some speakers; others see speaking in this way as counter-feminist).

There are also separate roots for animate and inanimate third person pronouns. However, nowhere else in the language does a masculine-feminine or animate-inanimate distinction show up in a way that would be suggestive of gender.

Indefinite Pronouns WALS Mixed
Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Identical
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No person marking
Number of Cases WALS No morphological case-marking
Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS No case-marking
Position of Case Affixes WALS No case affixes or adpositional clitics
Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Identity
Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS No possessive affixes

Nominal Syntax

Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent
Possessive Classification WALS No possessive classification
Adjectives without Nouns WALS Marked by preceding word
Action Nominal Constructions WALS Possessive-Accusative
Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' different from 'with'
Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Identity

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS Grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS Present, no remoteness distinctions
The Future Tense WALS Inflectional future exists
The Perfect WALS From 'finish', 'already'
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Tense-aspect suffixes
The Morphological Imperative WALS Second singular and second plural

The imperative and hortative moods share common verb morphology, which (like the indicative and other moods) marks plurality of the subject only when formal and/or negative. Person is never marked (in any paradigm). However, since the distinction between hortative and imperative is precisely between second-person and non-second-person, the imperative and hortative do not share any same-person and same-number morphology, thus the form qualifies as dedicated morphology. (The imperative and hortative moods, while marked the same way on the verb, have different syntax).

The Prohibitive WALS Normal imperative + special negative
Imperative-Hortative Systems WALS Neither type of system
The Optative WALS Inflectional optative absent
There does exist an optative mood, which shares an auxiliary verb with the hortative mood.
Situational Possibility WALS Affixes on verbs
Epistemic Possibility WALS Verbal constructions
Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking WALS Overlap for either possibility or necessity
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Coding of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS None
Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS No dominant order
Word order is strict, but alternates between SVO and SOV depending upon whether or not an auxilliary verb is present. Thus it actually has two dominant word orders. Relative clauses take SOV word order.
Order of Subject and Verb WALS SV
Order of Object and Verb WALS No dominant order
Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS No dominant order
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Prepositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Noun-Genitive
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Noun-Adjective
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Demonstrative-Noun
Order of Numeral and Noun WALS Numeral-Noun
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS No question particle
Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Initial interrogative phrase
Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Initial subordinator word
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Other
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Other
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Other
Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS [V-Neg]
Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to Subject, Object and Verb WALS Other

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Neutral
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Neutral
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Obligatory pronouns in subject position
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Mixed
Passive Constructions WALS Present
Antipassive Constructions WALS No antipassive
Applicative Constructions WALS No applicative construction
Periphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Sequential but no purposive
Negative Morphemes WALS Negative affix
Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Symmetric
Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Non-assignable
Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation WALS No predicate negation
Polar Questions WALS Interrogative verb morphology
Predicative Possession WALS 'Have'
Predicative Adjectives WALS Nonverbal encoding
Nominal and Locational Predication WALS Identical
Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Impossible
Comparative Constructions WALS Particle

Complex Sentences

Relativization on Subjects WALS Gap

The verb takes a form specific to relative clauses, which the WALS article classifies as a form of the gap strategy.

Relativization on Obliques WALS Gap
'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Subject is left implicit
Purpose Clauses WALS Deranked
'When' Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked
Reason Clauses WALS Deranked
Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced

Lexicon

Hand and Arm WALS Identical
Finger and Hand WALS Different
Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories WALS 6
Number of Basic Colour Categories WALS 11
Green and Blue WALS Green vs. blue
Red and Yellow WALS Red vs. yellow
M-T Pronouns WALS M-T pronouns, non-paradigmatic
Second person stem is "tse," which may technically qualify, but is clearly coincidental. The first person pronoun stems šo (singular), lúmu (exclusive plural), and lhúnu (inclusive plural), do not fit the paradigm.
N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns

Conlang-specific

Conlang type Artlang

Comments:

  1. On Sept. 9, 2013, 7:55 a.m., k1234567890y wrote:
    the word order is similar to that of standard German?
  2. On July 2, 2015, 4:45 a.m., Joersk wrote:
    Similar to standard German? It sounds like the word order _is_ standard German's.