Sjal

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Author(s):Erik
Homepage:http://vaalan.blogspot.com/
Background:Language spoken by about 40,000 people on a small chain of islands located off the northwestern shore of Norway towards Iceland. Isolate with some borrowings from Finnish and Norwegian/Swedish.
Greeting:Arjaa
Vocabulary size:2400
From earth:yes
Permalink:/language/sjal/
Averageness:60/100, 84 of 138
Number of features:138
Tags:nordic, isolate, a priori
Editable by all:no
Added by:Sjal 3
Managed by:Sjal 3
Editors:
Added:2009-10-13 01:01
Last change:2011-02-22 19:58

Features:

Phonology

Consonant Inventories WALS Average
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Large (7-14)
Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Average
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In fricatives alone
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS Missing /g/
Uvular Consonants WALS Uvular stops only
Glottalized Consonants WALS No glottalized consonants
Lateral Consonants WALS /l/, no obstruent laterals
The Velar Nasal WALS No initial velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS High and mid
Syllable Structure WALS Moderately complex
Tone WALS No tones
Fixed Stress Locations WALS Initial
Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Left-edge: First or second
Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS No weight
Rhythm Types WALS Trochaic
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS 'Th' sounds

Morphology

Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Exclusively concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Case + number
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 8-9 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Head marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Dependent-marking
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Strongly suffixing
Reduplication WALS No productive reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS Core cases only
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS Not syncretic

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS None
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS No gender
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS No gender
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Plural suffix
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always obligatory
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person-number stem
The Associative Plural WALS No associative plural
Definite Articles WALS No definite or indefinite article
Indefinite Articles WALS No definite or indefinite article
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS Two-way contrast
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Different inflection
Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives WALS Unrelated
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS No gender distinctions
Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS No politeness distinction
Indefinite Pronouns WALS Interrogative-based
Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Differentiated
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No person marking
Number of Cases WALS 10 or more cases
Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS Symmetrical
Position of Case Affixes WALS Case suffixes
Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Differentiation
Ordinal Numerals WALS Various
Distributive Numerals WALS Marked by suffix
Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent
Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers WALS Formally different
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS Possessive suffixes

Nominal Syntax

Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent
Possessive Classification WALS Two classes
Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses WALS Highly differentiated
Adjectives without Nouns WALS Marked by preceding word
Action Nominal Constructions WALS Mixed
Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' different from 'with'
Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Identity

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS Grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS Present, 2-3 remoteness distinctions
The Future Tense WALS Inflectional future exists
The Perfect WALS Other perfect
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Tense-aspect suffixes
The Morphological Imperative WALS No second-person imperatives
The Prohibitive WALS Normal imperative + special negative
Imperative-Hortative Systems WALS Maximal system
The Optative WALS Inflectional optative absent
Situational Possibility WALS Affixes on verbs
Epistemic Possibility WALS Affixes on verbs
Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking WALS Overlap for either possibility or necessity
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Coding of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS Tense
Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS No dominant order
Order of Subject and Verb WALS SV
Order of Object and Verb WALS VO
Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS No dominant order
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Postpositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Noun-Genitive
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Noun-Adjective
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Demonstrative suffix
Order of Numeral and Noun WALS Numeral-Noun
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause
Order of Degree Word and Adjective WALS Adjective-Degree word
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS Second position
Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Not initial interrogative phrase
Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Subordinating suffix
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS VO and Postpositions
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS VO and NRel
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS VO and NAdj

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Nominative - accusative (standard)
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Nominative - accusative (standard)
Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Accusative
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Subject affixes on verb
Verbal Person Marking WALS Both the A and P arguments
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A precedes P
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Mixed
Reciprocal Constructions WALS Distinct from reflexive
Passive Constructions WALS Present
Antipassive Constructions WALS No antipassive
Applicative Constructions WALS Benefactive and other; both bases
Periphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Purposive but no sequential
Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Morphological but no compound
Negative Morphemes WALS Variation between negative word and affix
Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Symmetric
Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation WALS Predicate negation also present
Polar Questions WALS Question particle
Predicative Possession WALS Genitive
Predicative Adjectives WALS Mixed
Nominal and Locational Predication WALS Different
Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Impossible
Comparative Constructions WALS Locational

Complex Sentences

Relativization on Subjects WALS Relative pronoun
Relativization on Obliques WALS Relative pronoun
'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Subject is left implicit
Purpose Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked
'When' Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked
Reason Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked
Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced/deranked

Lexicon

Hand and Arm WALS Different
Finger and Hand WALS Different
Numeral Bases WALS Decimal
Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories WALS 6
Number of Basic Colour Categories WALS 6-6.5
Green and Blue WALS Green vs. blue
Red and Yellow WALS Red vs. yellow
M-T Pronouns WALS M-T pronouns, paradigmatic
N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns
Tea WALS Words derived from Min Nan Chinese te

Other

Writing Systems WALS Alphabetic

Conlang-specific

Conlang type Artlang

Comments:

  1. On Dec. 26, 2010, 10:52 a.m., Udrihel wrote:
    wow very beautiful language!