Features for Kamakawi

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Phonology

Consonant Inventories WALS Small
Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Average (5-6)
Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Low
Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS No voicing constrast
Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS Other
Uvular Consonants WALS None
Glottalized Consonants WALS No glottalized consonants
Lateral Consonants WALS /l/, no obstruent laterals
The Velar Nasal WALS No velar nasal
Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent
Front Rounded Vowels WALS None
Syllable Structure WALS Simple
Tone WALS No tones
Fixed Stress Locations WALS Penultimate
Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Fixed stress
Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS No weight
Rhythm Types WALS Trochaic
Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present
Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS None

Morphology

Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Isolating/concatenative
Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Monoexponential case
Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 2-3 categories per word
Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS Dependent marking
Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Dependent-marking
Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Equal prefixing and suffixing
Reduplication WALS Productive full and partial reduplication
Case Syncretism WALS Core cases only
Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS No subject person/number marking

Nominal Categories

Number of Genders WALS None
Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS No gender
Systems of Gender Assignment WALS No gender
Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS Plural clitic
Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS All nouns, always obligatory
Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Person stem + nominal plural affix
The Associative Plural WALS No associative plural
Definite Articles WALS Definite word distinct from demonstrative
Indefinite Articles WALS No indefinite, but definite article
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS Inclusive/exclusive
Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS No person marking
Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS Two-way contrast
Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Identical
Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives WALS Unrelated
Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS 3rd person only, but also non-singular
Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS No politeness distinction
Indefinite Pronouns WALS Generic-noun-based
Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Differentiated
Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No person marking
Number of Cases WALS 3 cases
Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS Symmetrical
Position of Case Affixes WALS Prepositional clitics
Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Differentiation
Ordinal Numerals WALS One, two, three
Distributive Numerals WALS No distributive numerals
Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent
Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers WALS Formally different
Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS No possessive affixes

Nominal Syntax

Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent
Possessive Classification WALS Three to five classes
Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses WALS Highly differentiated
Adjectives without Nouns WALS Without marking
Action Nominal Constructions WALS Possessive-Accusative
Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' identical to 'with'
Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Differentiation

Verbal Categories

Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS Grammatical marking
The Past Tense WALS Present, no remoteness distinctions
The Future Tense WALS No inflectional future
The Perfect WALS From 'finish', 'already'
Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS Mixed type
The Morphological Imperative WALS Second person number-neutral
The Prohibitive WALS Normal imperative + normal negative
Imperative-Hortative Systems WALS Maximal system
The Optative WALS Inflectional optative absent
Situational Possibility WALS Verbal constructions
Epistemic Possibility WALS Verbal constructions
Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking WALS Overlap for both possibility and necessity
Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Coding of Evidentiality WALS No grammatical evidentials
Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS None
Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None

Word Order

Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS VSO
Order of Subject and Verb WALS VS
Order of Object and Verb WALS VO
Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS VOX
Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Prepositions
Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Noun-Genitive
Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Noun-Adjective
Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Demonstrative-Noun
Order of Numeral and Noun WALS Numeral-Noun
Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause
Order of Degree Word and Adjective WALS Adjective-Degree word
Position of Polar Question Particles WALS In either of two positions
Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Not initial interrogative phrase
Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Subordinating suffix
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS VO and Prepositions
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS VO and NRel
Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS VO and NAdj

Simple Clauses

Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Nominative - accusative (standard)
Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Nominative - accusative (standard)
Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Neutral
Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Obligatory pronouns in subject position
Verbal Person Marking WALS No person marking
Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS No person marking
Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb
Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Secondary-object construction
Reciprocal Constructions WALS Distinct from reflexive
Passive Constructions WALS Present
Antipassive Constructions WALS No antipassive
Applicative Constructions WALS Benefactive and other; both bases
Periphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Both
Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Morphological but no compound
Negative Morphemes WALS Negative particle
Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Symmetric
Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Non-assignable
Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation WALS Predicate negation also present
Polar Questions WALS Question particle
Predicative Possession WALS Locational
Predicative Adjectives WALS Verbal encoding
Nominal and Locational Predication WALS Different
Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Possible
Comparative Constructions WALS Exceed

Complex Sentences

Relativization on Subjects WALS Gap
Relativization on Obliques WALS Not possible
'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Both construction types exist
Purpose Clauses WALS Balanced
'When' Clauses WALS Balanced
Reason Clauses WALS Balanced
Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced

Lexicon

Hand and Arm WALS Different
Finger and Hand WALS Different
Numeral Bases WALS Decimal
Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories WALS 3
Number of Basic Colour Categories WALS 11
Green and Blue WALS Green vs. blue
Red and Yellow WALS Red vs. yellow
M-T Pronouns WALS No M-T pronouns
N-M Pronouns WALS N-M pronouns, non-paradigmatic
Tea WALS Others

Other

Writing Systems WALS Mixed logographic–syllabic
Para-Linguistic Usages of Clicks WALS Affective meanings

Conlang-specific

Conlang type Artlang

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