External name:LojbanKlingon
Internal name:lojban.tlhIngan Hol
Author(s):The Logical Language Group, Inc.Marc Okrand
Vocabulary size:217153000
From earth:yesno
Averageness of features:60/100, 72 of 11951/100, 74 of 143
Number of features:119143
Tags:loglan, unambiguous, engelang, isolatingfictional, science fiction, alien, star trek
Editable by all:yesyes
    Added:2008-05-20 10:352008-05-19 21:05
    Last change:2018-10-04 12:562015-01-07 01:20

    Comparing 143 features:

    Consonant Inventories WALS Moderately large Average
    Vowel Quality Inventories WALS Average (5-6) Average (5-6)
    Consonant-Vowel Ratio WALS Average Average
    Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives WALS In both plosives and fricatives In plosives alone
    Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems WALS None missing in /p t k b d g/ Other
    Uvular Consonants WALS Uvular continuants only Uvular stops and continuants
    Glottalized Consonants WALS No glottalized consonants No glottalized consonants
    Lateral Consonants WALS /l/, no obstruent laterals /l/ and lateral obstruent
    The Velar Nasal WALS No velar nasal Initial velar nasal
    Vowel Nasalization WALS Contrast absent Contrast absent
    Front Rounded Vowels WALS None None
    Syllable Structure WALS Complex Moderately complex
    Tone WALS No tones No tones
    Fixed Stress Locations WALS Penultimate No fixed stress
    Weight-Sensitive Stress WALS Fixed stress Unbounded: Stress can be anywhere
    Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems WALS No weight No weight
    Rhythm Types WALS Undetermined No rhythmic stress
    Absence of Common Consonants WALS All present All present
    Presence of Uncommon Consonants WALS None None
    Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS Exclusively isolating Exclusively concatenative
    Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives WALS No case Monoexponential case
    Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb WALS 0-1 category per word 8-9 categories per word
    Locus of Marking in the Clause WALS No marking Head marking
    Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases WALS No marking No marking
    Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology WALS Zero-marking Inconsistent or other
    Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology WALS Little affixation Weakly suffixing
    Reduplication WALS No productive reduplication No productive reduplication
    Case Syncretism WALS No case marking No syncretism
    Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking WALS No subject person/number marking Syncretic
    Number of Genders WALS None None
    Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems WALS No gender No gender
    Systems of Gender Assignment WALS No gender No gender
    Coding of Nominal Plurality WALS No plural Plural suffix
    Occurrence of Nominal Plurality WALS No nominal plural All nouns, always optional
    Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS Number-indifferent pronouns Person-number stem
    The Associative Plural WALS No associative plural No associative plural
    Definite Articles WALS Definite word distinct from demonstrative No definite or indefinite article
    Indefinite Articles WALS Indefinite word distinct from 'one' No definite or indefinite article
    Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns WALS Inclusive/exclusive No inclusive/exclusive
    Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection WALS No person marking No inclusive/exclusive
    Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives WALS Three-way contrast Two-way contrast
    Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives WALS Different stem Different stem
    Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives WALS Unrelated Unrelated
    Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns WALS No gender distinctions 3rd person only, but also non-singular
    Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns WALS No politeness distinction No politeness distinction
    Indefinite Pronouns WALS Special Special
    Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns WALS Differentiated Differentiated
    Person Marking on Adpositions WALS No person marking No person marking
    Number of Cases WALS No morphological case-marking 4 cases
    Asymmetrical Case-Marking WALS No case-marking Symmetrical
    Position of Case Affixes WALS No case affixes or adpositional clitics Case suffixes
    Comitatives and Instrumentals WALS Differentiation Differentiation
    Ordinal Numerals WALS One-th, two-th, three-th One-th, two-th, three-th
    Distributive Numerals WALS Marked by preceding word No distributive numerals
    Numeral Classifiers WALS Absent Absent
    Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers WALS Formally different Formally different
    Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes WALS No possessive affixes Possessive suffixes
    Obligatory Possessive Inflection WALS Absent Absent
    Possessive Classification WALS Three to five classes Two classes
    Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses WALS Highly differentiated Highly differentiated
    Adjectives without Nouns WALS Without marking Marked by suffix
    Action Nominal Constructions WALS Other
    Noun Phrase Conjunction WALS 'And' different from 'with' 'And' different from 'with'
    Nominal and Verbal Conjunction WALS Differentiation Differentiation
    Perfective/Imperfective Aspect WALS No grammatical marking Grammatical marking
    The Past Tense WALS Present, 2-3 remoteness distinctions No past tense
    The Future Tense WALS No inflectional future No inflectional future
    The Perfect WALS Other perfect No perfect
    Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes WALS No tense-aspect inflection Tense-aspect suffixes
    The Morphological Imperative WALS No second-person imperatives Second singular and second plural
    The Prohibitive WALS Normal imperative + normal negative Normal imperative + special negative
    Imperative-Hortative Systems WALS Neither type of system
    The Optative WALS Inflectional optative absent Inflectional optative present
    Situational Possibility WALS Other kinds of markers Affixes on verbs
    Epistemic Possibility WALS Other Affixes on verbs
    Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking WALS No overlap No overlap
    Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality WALS Direct and indirect No grammatical evidentials
    Coding of Evidentiality WALS Separate particle No grammatical evidentials
    Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect WALS None None
    Verbal Number and Suppletion WALS None Singular-plural pairs, no suppletion
    Order of Subject, Object and Verb WALS SVO OVS
    Order of Subject and Verb WALS SV VS
    Order of Object and Verb WALS VO OV
    Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb WALS VOX XOV
    Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS Prepositions Postpositions
    Order of Genitive and Noun WALS Noun-Genitive Genitive-Noun
    Order of Adjective and Noun WALS Adjective-Noun Noun-Adjective
    Order of Demonstrative and Noun WALS Demonstrative-Noun Demonstrative suffix
    Order of Numeral and Noun WALS Numeral-Noun Numeral-Noun
    Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS Noun-Relative clause Mixed
    Order of Degree Word and Adjective WALS Adjective-Degree word No dominant order
    Position of Polar Question Particles WALS Other position Other position
    Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions WALS Not initial interrogative phrase Not initial interrogative phrase
    Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause WALS Initial subordinator word Subordinating suffix
    Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase WALS VO and Prepositions OV and Postpositions
    Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Relative Clause and Noun WALS VO and NRel Other
    Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and Noun WALS VO and AdjN OV and NAdj
    Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases WALS Neutral
    Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns WALS Neutral
    Alignment of Verbal Person Marking WALS Split
    Expression of Pronominal Subjects WALS Subject affixes on verb
    Verbal Person Marking WALS No person marking Both the A and P arguments
    Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking WALS Zero in some 3sg forms
    Order of Person Markers on the Verb WALS A and P are fused
    Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give' WALS Mixed
    Reciprocal Constructions WALS Distinct from reflexive Distinct from reflexive
    Passive Constructions WALS Present Present
    Antipassive Constructions WALS No antipassive
    Applicative Constructions WALS No applicative construction
    Periphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Sequential but no purposive
    Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions WALS Both
    Negative Morphemes WALS Negative particle Negative affix
    Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Symmetric Symmetric
    Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation WALS Non-assignable Non-assignable
    Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation WALS No predicate negation No predicate negation
    Polar Questions WALS Question particle Interrogative verb morphology
    Predicative Possession WALS Topic 'Have'
    Predicative Adjectives WALS Verbal encoding Verbal encoding
    Nominal and Locational Predication WALS Identical
    Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals WALS Impossible
    Comparative Constructions WALS Exceed Conjoined
    Relativization on Subjects WALS Gap
    Relativization on Obliques WALS Not possible
    'Want' Complement Subjects WALS Subject is expressed overtly
    Purpose Clauses WALS Balanced
    'When' Clauses WALS Balanced
    Reason Clauses WALS Balanced
    Utterance Complement Clauses WALS Balanced
    Hand and Arm WALS Different Different
    Finger and Hand WALS Different Different
    Numeral Bases WALS Decimal Decimal
    Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories WALS 4
    Number of Basic Colour Categories WALS 11 3-4
    Green and Blue WALS Green vs. blue Yellow/green/blue
    Red and Yellow WALS Red vs. yellow Yellow/green/blue vs. red
    M-T Pronouns WALS M-T pronouns, paradigmatic No M-T pronouns
    N-M Pronouns WALS No N-M pronouns No N-M pronouns
    Tea WALS Others
    Writing Systems WALS Alphabetic Alphabetic
    Para-Linguistic Usages of Clicks WALS Other or none Other or none
    Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb WALS NegV [V-Neg]
    Position of Negative Morpheme With Respect to Subject, Object and Verb WALS SNegVO OVNegS
    Conlang type Engelang Artlang